Now showing items 21-40 of 5770

    • To seal or To Not Seal

      Jefferson, Tiffany; Verdree, Wakia; Dental Hygiene (2020-02)
      This project sought to determine why sealants are considered the best preventative method to prevent caries in permanent molars.
    • The Future of Nano-Robots in Dentistry

      Cartledge, Brenna; Watson, Lindsey; Dental Hygiene (2020-02)
      Micro-robots are being used in the medical field for a variety of procedures, such as: drug delivery and precision therapeutics. This research is used to determine how micro-robots can be incorporated into dentistry.
    • How Effective is Velscope in Dentistry

      Abbkar, Fatima; Atchison, Sherina; Dental Hygiene (2020-02)
      Velscope is a handheld device that used to detect oral cancer as an adjunct with the intraoral physical examination, using autofluorescence. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the effectiveness of velscope in dentistry.
    • Scaling and Root Planing in Conjunction with Propolis Irrigation

      Kurowski, Ashley; Lowe, Elaine; Dental Hygiene (2020-02)
      Periodontal Disease is a highly prevalent oral disease in the United States and dental professionals are always seeking a new and improved method to help decrease or arrest the side effects. This research is looking to propose a new innate, financially feasible option for individuals battling periodontal disease.
    • The Effects of Erythritol on Dental Caries and Biofilm

      Carter, Shelby; Gailer, Hannah; Dental Hygiene (2020-02)
      This project sought to determine the effectiveness of erythritol on the prevention of dental caries and the reduction of dental biofilm.
    • A Dental Hygienist’s Role in Teledentistry

      Harmon, SaDora; Barajas, Tania; Dental Hygiene (2020-02)
      To educate Teledentistry as the new advancement in Dentistry. To elaborate on the Dental hygienist’s role in this new advancement.
    • The Effects Probiotics Have on The Oral Cavity

      Colbert, Antonisha; Hamm, Marissa; Dental Hygiene (2020-02)
      The purpose of this literature review is to explore the options of probiotics; to see if they could potentially inhibit the bad bacteria in the oral cavity.
    • Utilizing Salivary Diagnostics to Prevent Oral Disease

      Delagarza Siquian, Kristen; Giacobone, Madison; Dental Hygiene (2020-02)
      Evaluation of xerostomia should be done at every appointment to assess the patient’s comfort level and implement a preventative care plan by recommending safe and effective products for each patient. By performing salivary diagnostics and using a clinical oral dryness score (CODS), dental hygienists are able to best assess a patient’s needs in order to prevent dental caries, halitosis, periodontal disease, and opportunistic infections.2 By providing an individualized care plan based on each patients’ CODS, dental hygienists can have a positive impact on their patients’ overall oral health.
    • Whitening Alternatives for Patients with Enamel Defects

      Kinsler, Abby; Smeragliuolo, Jenny; Dental Hygiene (2020-02)
      The purpose of our literature review is to explore the alternative whitening options available to patients who suffer from enamel defects. For moderate to severe cases, most treatment plans include invasive restorations to cover the enamel surface, which may result in tooth sensitivity and a high cost. The benefits of exploring these new techniques offer treatment options to patients that may be less expensive, less invasive, and a timelier treatment time which would result in an improved esthetic appearance faster
    • Oral Manifestations of Crohn’s Disease and its effect on Dental Treatment

      Rudduck, Alannah; Watkins, Meghan; Dental Hygiene (2020-02)
      OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this literature review is to inform dental health care professionals about CD, the oral manifestations that may be present, and what treatment modifications may be necessary. METHODS: To research information for this paper, we using the keywords: “Crohn’s Disease,” “oral manifestations,” and “dental treatment.” We gathered the majority of our articles through PubMed and EBSCO. We narrowed our search criteria by eliminating sources that were greater than five years old and articles that were not peer-reviewed. RESULTS: In order to understand CD, there is a lot that still remains unknown, and much more research needs to be conducted. However, understanding the biomarker in recent studies is the most important factor in any health care profession. The use of interprofessional communication with the patient's nutritionist, physician, and dental health team to determine key factors that are associated with CD is currently very important for further research. It’s theorized that IL12 cytokine stimulation in Th1 mediated upregulation results of IFNY may be the primary factors of CD.4 The reasons why it is significant to be conscious of the signs and symptoms of CD is due to oral inflammation may precede the intestinal manifestations.4 In addition, it’s hypothesized that the inflammatory response of IBD raises the basal cytokine response that induces periodontal disease. Several studies have been looking into this relationship further. Additional studies have recognized that CD patients have higher attribution of periodontal disease, deeper pocket depth, and clinical attachment loss.4 CONCLUSIONS: Treatment alterations to make the patient more comfortable include scheduling short appointments in the morning and allowing time for frequent restroom breaks. Despite having minimal biofilm accumulation, these patients tend to have bleeding on probing, deep periodontal pockets, decay, missing teeth and/or extensive previous dental treatment.3 Thus, clinicians need to regularly monitor caries and periodontal risks to optimize CD patient’s oral health status. Knowledgeable clinicians that recognize CD signs and symptoms should refer patients to their physicians for further diagnosis. It’s believed the more that is learned about CD and other IBD, the more overlap we will see in the oral cavity. Limitations to our research include inconsistent data and misrepresented populations. To best benefit the population, research will need to continue in order to learn more about the disease, development and management, and ways to prevent CD and other IBD, as well as less aggressive treatment options.
    • The Clinical Aspects of Hypophosphatasia

      Baker, Abby; Simpson, Sage; Dental Hygiene (2020-02-13)
      OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this research is to educate the dental community on the effects of hypophosphatasia and the clinical manifestations it presents throughout the body and the oral cavity. METHODS: Hypophosphatasia is a rare inherited metabolic disorder that has a wide spectrum of disease presentation. Due to 300 types of ALP mutations, HPP has six different major forms: perinatal lethal, prenatal benign, infantile, childhood, adulthood, and odotohypophosphatasia. There are clinical signs presented throughout the body and the oral cavity. Premature exfoliation of primary dentition is the first clinical sign of hypophosphatasia in childhood. Two different studies were reviewed in order to compare similar symptoms of hypophosphatasia. RESULTS: In one case study there were 38 patients who reported similar symptoms. In 15 (39%) of the patients a history of fractures was present. In the same study 21 (55%) of the patients had recurring headaches, 4 (11%) of the patients experienced severe muscle weakness, 23 (61%) experienced recurring muscle pain, and 18 (47%) of the patients exhibited dental abnormalities. In another case study there were 9 patients that reported only dental signs of hypophosphatasia. Dental signs of HPP were shown in childhood in 8 (88%) of the patients. The premature loss of the primary dentition was shown in 7 (77%) of the patients, absent primary dentition in 1 (11%) of the patients, and delayed loss of primary teeth in 1 (11%) of the patients. CONCLUSIONS: Since hypophosphatasia is so rare, more studies are needed on the diagnosis, preventative methods, and treatments. The majority of HPP cases are diagnosed in adulthood which ensures the disorder could have been present during childhood and was overlooked. In order to diagnose the disorder promptly, there should be a thorough medical history and clinical signs must be evaluated. There is no cure or long term prognosis for the hypophosphatasia disorder.
    • Predicting Violence Risk and Recidivism in Female Parolees: A State-Wide Sample

      Britt, Jessica Y.; Patton, Christina L.; Remaker, Dominique N.; Vitacco, Michael J.; Prell, Lettie; Department of Psychiatry (2020-07-20)
    • Cultural humility in internship training: Beyond checking the box

      Britt-Thomas, Jessica Y.; Department of Psychiatry (2022-07-20)
      Preparing psychology interns for practice in forensic psychology requires deep consideration of cultural factors. This cannot be accomplished by embedding a "cultural discussion" into a didactic to check a box for required trainings; internships must cultivate an environment that encourages trainees and supervisors alike to examine and question how our own identities factor into our daily decisions and interactions. Cultural humility requires self-reflection of one’s cultural identities as it relates to others, including privileged and oppressed identities. Having such discussions early and often during the internship year can establish expectations and build a culture of reflection, openness, and ongoing growth.
    • Comorbid Substance Abuse and Mental Illness on Impulsivity

      Patel, Kajol K.; McEvoy, Joseph P.; Miller, Brian J.; Britt, Jessica Y.; Department of Psychiatry (2022-07-20)
      Introduction: Impulsivity, or a lack of self-control, has been identified as a significant risk factor in individuals with substance abuse. Several studies have shown that the impact of impulsivity affects the onset of substance abuse, relapsing substance abuse, and outcomes during substance abuse treatment. Impulsivity has also been defined as a trait characteristic in multiple psychiatric disorders (i.e. schizophrenia, depression). Furthermore, studies have identified impulsivity as a mediating factor between psychiatric disorders and mental illness. Methods: Eligible participants were identified by practitioners at the Augusta University Psychiatry and Health Behaviors outpatient clinic and Serenity Behavioral Health Systems (n=47). Participants were administered the UPPS-short and BIS-11 scales via phone interviews. Follow-up phone interviews were conducted 30 days after the initial interview to establish test-retest validity. Of those that completed the initial assessment, 31 participants completed the follow-up assessment. Results: When comparing the UPPS and BIS scores in substance abusers and non-substance abusers, scores were higher in the substance abuse group compared to the non-substance abuse group, although this difference did not achieve significance (p = 0.19 and p = 0.43, respectively). UPPS and BIS scores correlated significantly with each other at initial assessment (r=0.79, p<0.001) and follow-up (r=0.82, p<0.001). The initial assessments of the UPPS and BIS also correlated significant with the follow-up assessments (r=0.74, p<0.001 and r=0.83, p<0.001, respectively). Conclusion: Results of the study indicate that impulsivity was higher in the substance abusing sample compared to the non-substance abusing sample, although significance was not reached. A decreased p-value in the entire sample as compared to previous analyses performed on a partial sample suggests that the current sample lacks power. Increased sample size may allow for the analyses to reach significance.
    • The Mentoring Minute Compendium

      Stepleman, Lara; Liang, Yan; Coleman, Taylor; Nall, Heather; Williams, Matthew; Samuels, Stevauney; Zimmerman, Danielle; Medical College of Georgia (2022-07-20)
      A collection of brief overviews of evidence-based mentoring practices
    • CURS Connection June/July 2022

      Davis, Quentin; Knapp, Melissa; Center for Undergraduate Research and Scholarship; Center for Undergraduate Research and Scholarship (Augusta University, 2022-06)
      Table of Contents: CURS Welcomes New Coordinator: Dr. Alex St. Louis; Summer Scholars Program 2022 Is Live; Documenting Undergraduate Research; A Year in Pictures; Fall Grants Open in August; Student Research Series on Pause; Want to be a Student Assistant?; Seeking Ambassadors.
    • A Descriptive Phenomenology of Workplace Incivility Among Operating Room Nurses During the COVID-19 Pandemic

      Martin, Louisa Dasher; Nursing (Augusta University, 2022-07-13)
      Workplace incivility (WPI) and other forms of workplace mistreatment in healthcare are associated with medical errors, increased costs, preventable adverse events, and issues with retention of qualified clinicians. The operating room (OR) can be an exceptionally toxic environment for nurses, and as many as 97% of OR clinicians are exposed to WPI and other disruptive behaviors. Additionally, there is evidence that incivility among registered nurses has increased since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. Major professional and healthcare organizations are calling on healthcare institutions to address the problem. Despite quantitative evidence on the existence and consequences of WPI in the OR, the problem has continued to persist, and there are critical gaps in the literature. There is minimal qualitative research on the topic, and there are no current data on the efficacy of interventions for addressing WPI in the OR. Of utmost importance is the need to understand how the COVID-19 pandemic has influenced WPI among OR nurses. Thus, there is a need for a qualitative study exploring WPI among this population during the COVID-19 pandemic. The purpose of the study was to describe the essential structure of the lived experience of WPI among registered nurses practicing in the circulator role in ORs within hospitals in the southeastern United States during the COVID-19 pandemic. I conducted the study utilizing Colaizzi’s descriptive phenomenological methods. A total of 15 OR nurses from five different sites participated, and each participating nurse completed up to two semi-structured interviews. Based on data analysis, three themes were revealed: (a) Enduring incivility as an individualized test of one’s mettle, (b) COVID-19 as an accelerant for WPI, and (c) Addressing WPI through accountability, communication, and education. While participants experienced WPI in a variety of ways, certain similarities were threaded throughout their descriptions of the phenomenon. The experience was primarily described as unpleasant and complex, especially for those who were the target of WPI. Additionally, the experience was influenced by a number of factors, some of which were unique to each individual and some which were unique to the OR itself. COVID-19 seems to have exacerbated the problem of WPI in the OR, creating an environment characterized by greater stress, tension, and frustration. There is an urgent need to address WPI in the OR, especially through accountability, communication, and education. OR managers and leaders can use the findings of this study to enhance the overall health of the environment and begin to foster a culture of civility. Specifically, managers can use the findings to improve the experience of being new in the OR, as well as the experience of reporting WPI in the OR. There is a need for additional knowledge development related to new graduate nurses in the OR, as well as the impact of sociodemographic factors on WPI in the OR. In addition, there is a need for research on targeted interventions for addressing WPI in the OR.
    • The Roles of Circadian Disruption and Reactive Oxygen Species Overproduction in the Development of Obesity-Associated Cardiovascular Disease

      Padgett, Caleb; Biomedical Sciences (Augusta University, 2022-07-13)
      Obesity is a complex and multifactorial disease that is endemic in the United States, affecting over 40% of the US population and contributing to over $150 billion in medical cost. Obesity and metabolic disease are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease, which is the leading cause of death among Americans, especially those in the southeast. While the detrimental effects of obesity on cardiovascular health are well-documented, the mechanisms linking aberrant metabolism to vascular dysfunction are poorly understood. In the present study, we investigate the role of the vascular endothelium in mediating the progression of cardiometabolic disease through disruption of the peripheral circadian clock as well as through overproduction of reactive oxygen species, both of which are implicated in the development of endothelial dysfunction and the downstream acute cardiovascular diseases it predicts. We demonstrate that obesity causes a unique circadian disruption in the endothelium that is not recapitulated by other established models of circadian disruption, and that rhythmic expression of the essential vasodilatory enzyme endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is disturbed. Expression of NADPH oxidase I (NOX1), the major pathological reactive oxygen species (ROS)-producing enzyme in the vasculature, was markedly increased in the endothelium, and was found to be even more highly expressed in the obese microvascular endothelium. Further, endothelial expression of the receptor for glycation end-products galectin-3 (GAL3) was found to correlate with NOX1 expression levels, leading us to hypothesize that GAL3 contributes to obesity-induced NOX1 overexpression in the microvascular endothelium. We demonstrate that deletion of GAL3 resolves obesity-induced endothelial dysfunction and hypertension by decreasing NOX1 expression and subsequent ROS overproduction. Finally, we demonstrate that the GAL3/NOX1 axis is amenable to beneficial changes in glucose handling by treatment with metformin, augmentation of skeletal muscle mass, or improvement of insulin signaling. Taken together, these data indicate that GAL3 is an attractive therapeutic target to ameliorate obesity-induced cardiovascular disease.
    • Intro to Anatomic Imaging

      Tally, Toby C (2021-08-12)
    • Enhancing Immune Therapy by Modulating Cell Death

      Merting, Alyssa; Biomedical Sciences (Augusta University, 2022-07-13)
      Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer mortality in the United States. Treatments for colorectal cancer become limited as the cancer progresses. The most effective treatment is surgery, which is most effective while the tumor is in the early stages. Treatments used for advanced colorectal cancer includes chemoradiation and in some cases immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) immunotherapies, however, only a small percentage of colorectal cancers respond to ICB therapies. One way to potentially increase ICB efficacy may be to target myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). MDSC accumulation is a known hallmark of cancer, with their key function being immune suppression via multiple mechanisms. In this study it is reported that MDSC accumulation is regulated by TNF-RIP1-mediated necroptosis. It was determined that inhibition of DNA methyl transferases (DNMTs) with Decitabine (DAC) abolished MDSC accumulation and increased activation of antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in tumor-bearing mice. Furthermore, recombinant TNF induced MDSC cell death in a dose and RIP1-dependent manner. These data show that autocrine IL6 activates the STAT3-DNMT axis to epigenetically silence the TNF-RIP1 necroptosis pathway to sustain MDSC survival and accumulation in cancer. Targeting the TNF-RIP1 necroptosis is potentially an effective approach to suppress MDSCs and activate tumor reactive CTLs in the tumor microenvironment. Another hallmark of colorectal cancer is the loss of FAS expression, the death receptor for FASL on CTLs. However, it is unknown whether restoring FAS expression alone is sufficient to suppress colorectal cancer development. Codon usage optimized mouse and human FAS cDNAs were designed, synthesized, and cloned into a plasmid. The plasmid was then encapsulated within cationic lipids to formulate nanoparticle DOTAP-Chol-Fas. Overexpression of codon usage-optimized FAS in metastatic mouse colon-tumor cells enabled FASL induced elimination of FAS+ tumor cells in vitro, suppressed colon tumor growth, and increased the median survival rate of tumor-bearing mice in vivo. Overexpression of codon-optimized FAS-induced FAS receptor auto-oligomerization and tumor cell auto-apoptosis in metastatic human colon tumor cells. DOTAP-Chol-hFAS therapy is also sufficient to suppress metastatic human colon tumor xenograft growth in athymic mice, stopping PDX tumor growth in vivo. Thus this study determined that delivery of FAS DNA nanoparticles is sufficient to suppress human colon tumor growth in vivo.